The Holy Quran is Allah’s word and the greatest miracle of Islam. You might be wondering how was the order of the Quran determined. Before we proceed with answering this question it is important to know that there is a difference between the order in which the verses of the Holy Quran were revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and the order of the Quranic verses present in the written version of the Quran (Uthmani Mus-haf).
As we all know, the first Quranic verse revealed to our prophet (PBUH) was: “Read, O Prophet, in the Name of your Lord Who created”. Al-‘Alaq (1). Although this verse was the first to be revealed, yet you can find it written in the last chapter of the Holy Quran (Chapter 30). So, how was the order of the Quran determined, this is what we will discuss in this article.
How Was the Order of the Quran Determined?
The Holy Quran was compiled by Uthman bin Affan and all copies that are in existence today are identical to the Uthmani Mus-haf. Below is a brief description of how is the Quran organized?
The order of Quran verses
Islamic scholars consent that the order of verses within Surahs of the Quran was determined by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) following the command of Allah (SWT).
The Prophet (PBUH) would call his scribes whenever a new chapter was revealed, meticulously dictating its contents to them while also instructing them on how to arrange it in relation to the earlier chapters. In addition to that, the companions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) used to pray behind him and learn the verses of the Quran by heart in the same order he recited them during daily prayers.
Many incidents were narrated in Sunnah that indicate how was the order of the Quran determined. One example is the narration from Imam Ahmad with its chain from Uthman, the son of Abu-al-As, who said: I was sitting with the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) when he glanced and then directed his sight and said: Angel Jibril came to me and commanded me to place this verse in this place in the chapter: (Verily, Allah commands justice, righteousness and giving the nearer…) to the end of the verse. (Quran 16:90).
Another piece of evidence that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the one who determined the order of the Quran is that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “I have been given instead of the Torah, the 7 long Surahs Saba”a Tiwaal and I have been given instead of the Zabur (Psalms of David) the mi”eem Surahs, and instead of the injeel of Esa the mathani surahs and I have been privileged with the mufassal Surahs)” Narrated by Imam Ahmed.
Who decided the order of surahs in Quran?
There are three opinions of Muslim scholars
as regards the arrangement of Surahs of the Quran within the Uthmani Mus-haf (the written version of the Quran), that can be summarized as follows:
The first opinion regarding how was the order of the Quran determined (which is the opinion of the majority of Muslim scholars) is that the Surahs of the Holy Quran were arranged by the Prophet (PBUH) following the commands of Allah revealed to him through the Angel Jebreel (PBUH).
The evidence of this is the hadith narrated in Sahih al-Bukhari 3376 that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Gabriel would come to me to revise the Quran once every year. This year he revised with me twice. I do not think it means anything but that my term will come to an end”.
Thus, it is evident that the Sahaabah’s efforts were focused only on collecting the Quran in one book rather than organizing its sequence. The Quran was revealed in stages as needed from al-Lawh al-Mahfooz, Allah then sent it down in its entirety to the first heaven, and the order in which it was revealed is different from the order in which it is recited.
The second opinion of Muslim scholars regarding how was the order of the Quran determined is that the Quran was arranged by the companions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) after his death.
While the third opinion of Muslim scholars regarding how was the order of the Quran determined is that only some of the Surahs of the Quran were arranged during the reign of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), whereas the rest of the Surahs were arranged later after his death by his companions.
How was the Holy Quran revealed?
Instead of being revealed as a whole book in a single revelation act, the Quran was revealed bit by bit over the course of 23 years. There are several causes for this, however, the following are the most significant ones:
- To teach Muslims how to deal with daily situations
There are numerous instances of situations where certain behavior is blamed and corrected in the Quran. Both Muslims in general and the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself are subject to these situations.
In addition to this Quranic verses were coinciding with relevant events that happened at that time.
An example of this is what happened to Sayyidah Khaulah bint Tha’labah, a Muslim woman, who experienced an unusual divorce. She went to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) complaining about her situation. Shortly after that the first verses of Surah Al-Mujadila were revealed. The verses begin with Allah stating that He heard their conversation and then explaining how she should deal with this situation.
- To fulfill the needs of the Muslim community at different times
Moreover, the gradual revelation of the Quran was crucial to fulfill the needs of the Muslim community at different times. For instance, if you read the verses that were revealed in Mecca, you will notice that these verses are focusing on strengthening the belief in one God, as for the verses that were revealed later in Al-Madina, they were mainly concentrating on Islamic legislation and regulation. This shows that the gradual revelation of the Holy Quran was essential to meet the needs of the Muslim community at that time.
- To strengthen the hearts of Muslims
The revelation of the Holy Quran in stages allowed Muslims to understand the meanings of the Quran and apply it in their lives, it furthermore fortified the faith of the Prophet (PBUH) and the Muslims allowing the Quran to be rooted in their hearts. Hence, Allah (SWT) says:
Who arranged the holy Quran?
Speaking of the history of Quran writing and arrangement, it is worth knowing that whenever Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had a revelation he used to gather his scribes and dictate them each ayah.
During the reign of the Caliph Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq the need for the compilation of the Quran arose due to the martyrdom of several companions who were memorizing the Quran, which made Umar bin-Khattab suggest the Quran compilation.
The Quran compilation process was supervised by Zaid bin Thabit who was one of the Quran scribes. To ensure the avoidance of any possible error, all the copies that were written during the life of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) we’re collected and compared with the completed version of the Holy Quran with utmost accuracy.
The complete version of the Quran was then kept with Caliph Abu Bakr Al Siddiq, then Umar bin Alkhattab, then with the mother of Mu’menin Hafsa bint Umar.
Later on, with the expansion of Islam into the Arabian states during the reign of Uthman Bin-Affan the need for a universal unified version of the Quran arose to prevent any sort of distortion that could happen due to varied Arabic dialects. The Caliph Uthman ordered Zaid bin Thabet to make several copies of the complete Quran ( the one with Hafsa) to send them to the new Islamic states. He then ordered all other Quranic texts to be removed to achieve a single perfect script of the Holy Quran.
No one denies that the Holy Quran is Allah’s everlasting miracle, which He guarded from all sorts of distortion to be the guide of every Muslim till the day of resurrection. But, how was the order of the Quran determined?
There is consensus that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the one who determined the order of Quranic verses, as for the order of Quran Surahs most of the Islamic scholars suggest that they were also arranged by the Prophet (PBUH) following the command of Allah (SWT) revealed to him through angel Jebreel (PBUH).
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Can I learn Quran by myself, or do I need an instructor to teach me the Quran? A question that might concern you, especially if Arabic is not your native language, you may find it hard to decide whether it is better to start learning Quran on your own or just join a Quran class to guide you through your study.
It is important before you decide the best Quran learning strategy is to specify your purpose of learning the Quran. The same thing applies to all your deeds as a Muslim, it all starts with your intention. In light of this article you will be able to choose the best way to learn the Holy Quran as well as the most efficient Quran learning strategies.
How did Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) learn the Quran?
If you wonder whether it is possible to learn the Quran by yourself or not, it is essential to discover how the Quran was initially revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
The Prophet used to spend extended periods of time in solitude worshiping God at the Hiraa cave outside of Makkah, according to his wife ‘A’ishah.
One day, Allah (SWT) sent angel Gabriel to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who was asked to read. “I cannot read”, the Prophet, who was illiterate, replied.
He took hold of me (the Apostle said) and pressed me, till I was hard pressed; thereafter he let me off and said: Recite. I said: I am not lettered. He then again took hold of me and pressed me for the second time till I was hard pressed and then let me off and said: Recite, to which I replied: I am not lettered.
He took hold of me and pressed me for the third time, till I was hard pressed and then let me go and said: “Recite in the name of your Lord Who created, created man from a clot of blood. Recite. And your most bountiful Lord is He Who taught the use of pen, taught man what he knew not” (al-Qur’an, Al Alaq 1-4). Sahih Muslim 160 a.
After receiving revelations, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) would later recite it to his Companions, who also memorized it or wrote it down.
Before the Quran was available in its written form, reciting it from memory was the main method of teaching it to others. Since then, millions of Muslims worldwide have memorized the entire Holy Quran in the same way in spite of the availability of the written form of the Quran.
Can I memorize Quran by myself?
If you are still wondering if you can memorize the Quran by yourself, then the short answer to your question is “No” you cannot learn the Quran by yourself.
What we can conclude from the previously mentioned story of Quran revelation, is that the ideal way to learn the Quran is through listening to the Quran from an expert teacher then mimicking his recitation, then the teacher has to correct your recitation and so on.
Why do you need a Quran tutor?
Even if you are an Arab and want to recite the holy Quran with tajweed or want to understand its meanings, you still need a professional teacher or Sheikh who can help you to learn the Quran. Here are some of the benefits of having a Quran tutor.
- Quranic language is challenging
The Quran is written in the Arabic language, which is unique among other languages and more sensitive. If you pronounce a letter incorrectly, you could change the meaning of the Quran, which is something we don’t want to happen. Therefore, a qualified Quran tutor can help you avoid these mistakes and explain the meanings of the Quran verses.
- Learning with a teacher saves you a lot of time and effort
Learning the Quran by yourself can cost you a lot of time and effort. Since, you will need to search for a large number of study resources which is not an easy task to do. It will also take you some time to get used to the terminology used in tajweed books. This becomes way easier when you learn Quran with a teacher.
- It is hard to recognize your own mistakes
When you learn the Quran by yourself you may miss many mistakes that might be there in your recitation. It is often hard to listen to your own mistakes, especially errors in tajweed, therefore it is crucial to recite in front of a Sheikh to get your recitation corrected.
- Learning with a teacher makes you more committed to the Quran
When you learn the Quran with a teacher you become less liable to procrastinate, and this will help you excel better in your study. Having a fixed learning schedule will make you more committed to the Quran.
How to Easily Learn Quran by Yourself?
You may be asking how can I easily learn Quran by myself? Although learning the Quran by yourself is not the most effective way, yet it is advisable to regularly practice what you have learned from your teacher on your own. Reciting the Quran on a daily basis enables you to recite the Quran more confidently and fluently. Below are some useful tips that will help you learn the Quran easily.
- Renew your intention and fidelity to Allah.
- Practice the Quran daily.
- Regularly revise what you have already learned and write down notes with your common mistakes.
- Record your recitation to observe your mistakes.
- Continuously Listen to the Quran recitation by your favorite Sheikh.
- Teach what you have learned to your friends and family members, this will help you reinforce your memorization.
- Choose a study partner so that you remind each other of your daily tasks.
How should a beginner start reading the Quran?
As a beginner it is essential to find a qualified Quran teacher who will most probably start by teaching you the Arabic alphabet and the correct pronunciation of harakahs and voweled letters then you will proceed in learning other tajweed rules alongside with memorizing short surahs.
No one can deny the importance of Quran in Muslims’ lives. Hence, we should all save no effort to learn how to recite the Holy Quran with tajweed, comprehend its meanings and apply its teachings and morals in our daily lives.
Although learning Quran by yourself may seem more convenient in terms of the expenses and flexible schedules it actually costs you much time and effort, and rarely yields the desired results.
This is why Itqan Quran online academy offers you Quran memorization classes that you can attend from the comfort of your home, with the help of native Quran tutors and at reasonable prices.
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The Holy Quran is Allah’s word and the most valuable treasure that Allah granted us as Muslims. The importance of Quran is not limited to being a book of worship but it regulates all aspects of the life of every Muslim. Allah (SWT) said: “O, people! There has come to you advice from your Lord, and healing for what is in the hearts, and guidance and mercy for believers”. Surah Yunus 57.
In this article, you will get to know more about the importance of the Holy Quran and why learning the Quran is of great importance to you as a Muslim.
In this article, we will discuss:
Importance of Quran | Muslims’ Holy book
What is the importance of Quran in Islam?
- Quran is the word of Allah
- Importance of the Quran as evidence of prophethood
- Quran teaches us the Oneness of Allah
- Importance of Quran in Islamic legislation
- Importance of Quran in Muslim life
- Importance of Quran recitation in prayers
Hadith on importance of Quran
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What is the importance of Quran in Islam?
The Quran is a manual for living. It provides the fundamental guidelines for a man’s behavior. Its teachings embrace every aspect of life, including salvation both now and in the hereafter, Tawhid and nubuwwa, and the Prophet’s personal experience.
Quran is the fundamental source of legislation in Islam and it offers crucial guidelines for human behavior in politics, society, economics, and ethics. Here are some of the reasons why the Quran is so important in the life of Muslims.
- Quran is the word of Allah
Allah (SWT) said about the Quran: “A revelation from Him (Allah) Who has created the earth and high heavens”. Surah Taha 4. Hence, the greatness and importance of the Quran arise from the fact that it is a message from Allah, the one who created us and the whole universe, and the one who undoubtedly knows what would make us lead a happy and successful life. Only if you recognize that you would submit to Allah’s orders and prohibitions in the Quran.
- Importance of the Quran as evidence of prophethood
Quran is a timeless miracle in its beauty and inspirational nature. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) challenged the Arab society, which was proud of eloquence and poetry, to bring words that are equivalent to the Quran in eloquence, and strength, yet they failed to do so. This was clear evidence of prophet Mohammed’s (PBUH) prophethood.
Allah (SWT) challenged the prophet Muhammad’s opponents saying: “Say: If mankind and the jinn gathered together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they would not produce the like of it, even if they were to each other assistants”. Surah A
- Quran teaches us the Oneness of Allah
The most important principle of the Holy Quran’s teachings is monotheism (Tawheed). The oneness of Allah, the guidance of Allah through prophets, and the resurrection, or life after death, are the three main concepts presented by the Quran. These ideas shape human life and assure that every Muslim lives a happy and prosperous life. The Quran also forewarns us of the severe consequences of unbelief.
The Quran teaches humans how to know Allah by outlining the simplest and most direct path. It invites them to study the significant indicators and manifestations of the power of Allah in nature. By reflecting on the grandiosity of Allah’s creation in the world around us, we can easily conclude that this creation is in no way a coincidence.
Allah (SWT) said: “And He it is Who spread the earth and made in it firm mountains and rivers, and of all fruits He has made in it two kinds; He makes the night cover the day; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect”. Surah Ar-Ra’d 3.
- Importance of Quran in Islamic legislation
The primary source of Islamic law, or Sharia, is the Quran. It lays the foundation for relationships between people—Muslim and non-Muslim—as well as between people and the rest of creation. It also contains the laws by which the Muslim world is governed.
The Sharia lays down the guidelines by which a Muslim society is run, as well as how conflicts between people and between people and the state are to be settled.
Muslims universally agree that the Quran is the foundation of Sharia and that its precise rules must be strictly followed. In other words, the Quran is not only a book of worship but a complete set of laws that govern the life of Muslims at all times.
- Importance of Quran in Muslim life
Allah (SWT) sent prophet Muhammad (PBUH), His final prophet, in order to transmit His messages to humanity, reveal His existence to them, and instruct them on what they should and should not do. This highlights the Quran’s significance even more.
Through the Quran, we get to know about the pillars of Iman which are: the belief in God, the angels, the prophets, Allah’s books, Qada’ and Qadar (doom and decree), and the day of resurrection (Qiyamah). This knowledge paves our way to becoming good Muslims and entering paradise.
- Importance of Quran recitation in prayers:
In order to perform prayers you should at least learn how to correctly recite Surah Al-Fatihah and two short surahs with proper rules of tajweed.
Ubadah bin As-Samit narrated: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: “There is no Salah for one who does not recite Fatihatil-Kitab or more.” Sunan an-Nasa’i 911.
Therefore, if you are a new Muslim you should start learning the verses of Surah Al-Fatihah as soon as possible in order to be able to perform Salah which is considered one of the pillars of Islam.
7. The importance of Quran in Muslim’s daily life:
The Quran is a cure for both physical and psychological ailments. Being connected to the Quran on a daily basis provides you tranquility and peace of mind.
Allah (SWT) said: “Those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah, and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allah, Verily, in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find rest” Surah Ar-Ra‘d 28. Therefore, it is advisable for you as a Muslim to recite a daily portion of Quran (daily Wird) to keep close to Allah at all times.
Hadith on importance of Quran
Many Hadiths emphasize the importance of learning Quran.One of which is the hadith reported by Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (PBUH) said;
“There was not a Prophet from amongst the Prophets, except that he was given the like of (miracles) upon which people believed. (As for me), I have been given Wahy (Divine Inspiration) which Allah has revealed to me, and therefore, I hope that my followers will outnumber the followers of the other Prophets on the Day of Resurrection.”
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Now that you know the importance of the Quran, it is time to take a step towards knowing how to correctly recite it by learning the rules of tajweed, then trying to understand the meaning of its verses and most importantly implementing the morals and virtues of the Quran in your daily life.
Benefits of Memorizing Quran are infinite, which make it one of the best acts of worship a Muslim can do. When you memorize the Quran, you not only gain hasanat but also you purify your soul, and achieve many other advantages that you won’t even imagine. In this article we will discuss in detail some of these benefits, and how Quran memorization can be your key to happiness in your lifetime and the hereafter.
What are the benefits of Memorizing the Quran?
The Quran and sunnah of our beloved prophet Muhammad (PBUH) highlighted the various benefits of Quran memorization, Quran is a source of honor and protection from hellfire, it improves your mind, soul, and body’s health, gives honor to your parents and many other benefits that you will come to know about through this article.
1- Quran is the best remedy for stress and anxiety
Through memorizing the Quran and comprehending the words of Allah (SWT), you are continually reminded that only Allah (SWT) has authority over your life and He has a plan for every one of us. Even the seemingly insignificant things that occur to us are all a part of the larger and more ideal plan that our Lord has for us. Then, you will be aware of God’s protection and His control over all things. Allah (SWT) said: “Say, ‘It is, for those who believe, a guidance and cure.’’ (Quran 41:44).
Hence, having the Quran in your heart provides you a feeling of tranquility and peace. This will protect you from sadness, worries, and depression.
Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) used to ask Allah (SWT) to make the Qur’an the spring of his heart, and the light of his chest, the banisher of his sadness, and the reliever of his distress.
2- The Quran is a cure for physical ailments
Another advantage of memorizing the Quran is that it is a cure for the physical illnesses by the will of Allah (SWT). The Prophet (PBUH) advised his followers to recite the Quran, blow it into their palms, and then rub their hands all over their bodies when they were ill. They would no longer have any physical illnesses as a result. Surah Ikhlas and Surah Falak were the most beneficial surahs to read while being ill. The Prophet would recite the Quran and blow it over sick members of his family, seeking cure from Allah (SWT).
3- Being one of the people of Allah
Another benefit of memorizing the Quran is that the people who are connected to the Quran are considered the people of Allah. As Anas ibn Malik reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH), said, “Verily, Allah has His own people among humanity.” They said, “O Messenger of Allah, who are they?” The Prophet said, “They are the people of the Quran, the people of Allah and His chosen ones.”
4- Protecting Quran from corruption
Allah has guarded the Quran not only by being written in books, but also in the chests of thousands of Muslims all around the world. A “hafiz” in Arabic means the one who protects. Allah (swt) said in the holy Quran: “It is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Quran) and surely, We will guard it. When you memorize the Quran you will achieve the honor of being one of those who guard the Quran against all sorts of corruption or distortion.
5- Quran Hafiz honors his parents
On the day of judgment, the parents of the hafiz will wear a crown as a reward for supporting and helping their son or daughter in memorizing the Quran. In addition to that, the hafiz will be able to intercede on behalf of ten of his family members to accompany him in Jannah.
6- An opportunity to reflect deeply on the Quran
One of the benefits of Quran memorization is that it gives you a greater opportunity to be in consistent connection with the Quran and to develop a deeper understanding of the Quran. This is because memorization requires repetition and continuous revision of the Quran verses.
7- Quran is your intercessor on the day of judgment
This is absolutely one of the greatest advantages of Quran memorization since many Hadiths prove that the Quran intercedes for its companions on the Day of Resurrection. It was narrated that our Prophet (PBUH) said: “Read the Quran, for it will come on the Day of Resurrection interceding for its companions.”
8- Being in the company of the angels
The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “The one who is proficient in the recitation of the Quran will be with the honorable and obedient scribes (angels), and he who recites the Quran and finds it difficult to recite, doing his best to recite it in the best way possible, will have two rewards.”
Therefore, learning tajweed rules and memorizing the Quran is your way to earn this great honor and be in the company of angels.
9- Quran memorization raises your rank in jannah:
The Prophet (PBUH) said, “The one who was devoted to the Quran will be told on the Day of Resurrection: ‘Recite and ascend (in ranks) as you used to recite when you were in the world. Your rank will be at the last Ayah you recite.’
This is a great benefit of Quran memorization that you should not miss. Being a “Hafiz” provides you a chance to enter the”Firdaws” which is the highest rank of Jannah.
10- Does memorizing the Quran improve memory?
The answer to this question is definitely, yes. In addition to the divine rewards of Quran memorization, many studies have shown that memorizing large texts such as the Quran can boost your working memory and improve your IQ.
Just the same way muscular training strengthens your muscles, Quran memorization trains your brain to retain more information. This is the same concept the doctors rely on while encouraging Alzheimer’s patients to solve crossword puzzles.
There are numerous benefits of Quran memorization. It is a cure to physical and spiritual illnesses, a source of honor for you and for your parents on the day of judgment and a treasure of good deeds.
Itqan Quran online Quran academy helps you make your dream of becoming a “Hafiz” come true; by providing one-to-one and group Quran memorization classes by native Quran tutors at a budget-friendly cost.
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The Holy Quran is the divine book sent to guide us to the right path. Every Muslim needs to learn the tajweed rules of the Qur’an to get closer to Allah and to be able to recite and comprehend Allah’s message.
The word “tajweed” linguistically means to improve or make something better, while practically it refers to the correct pronunciation of each letter of the holy Quran, giving the letter its right regarding its origin and characteristics.
In this article, we will review the Quran rules of tajweed with practical examples that will help you recite the Quran fluently and with minimal effort.
We will discuss in brief some of the basic rules for tajweed including:
- Rules of Noon sakinah and tanween.
- Rules of Meem sakinah.
- Rules of Noon and Meem with shaddah.
- Lengthening (Madd).
What is the definition of Qalqalah?
Linguistic definition: it is a disturbance or shaking.
Applied definition: it is a disturbance of the letter when it is non-voweled until a strong accent is heard when it is articulated by the parting of the 2 components of the articulating parts, not by collision, without any mouth opening, or lips circling, or jaw lowering.
What are the letters of Qalqalah?
The letters of Qalqalah are 5 letters which are: ( ق- ط- ب- ج- د ).
These letters are usually summed in the word (قطبجد).
What are the types of Qalqalah?
Qalqalah is divided into three classes that can be summarized as follows:
- The Lesser Qalqalah:
This occurs when the letter of qalqalah in is the middle of a word, as in:
( وخلقناكم أزواجًا )
- The Intermediate Qalqalah:
It occurs when the letter of qalqalah is at the end of a word, without a shaddah, and we are stopping on that word as in:
(والله من ورائهم محيط )
- The Greater Qalqalah:
This happens when the letter of qalqalah is the last letter of a word, and we are stopping on that word and this letter has a shaddah as in:
( قال رب احكم بالحق )
What is the difference between the 3 types of Qalqalah?
The difference between the classes of qalqalah is that there is more ringing sound that accompanies the letter of qalqalah when it has a shaddah and we are stopping on it.
Practical examples of Qalqalah:
- ٱقۡرَأۡ بِٱسۡمِ رَبِّكَ ٱلَّذِی خَلَقَ – (ق)
- ٱلَّذِیۤ أَطۡعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعࣲ وَءَامَنَهُم مِّنۡ خَوۡفِۭ – (ط)
- وَٱلۡعَـٰدِیَـٰتِ ضَبۡحا – (ب)
- إِنَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ ٱلرُّجۡعَىٰۤ – (ج)
- وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا هِيَهْ – (د)
Rules of Noon Sakinah and Tanween
The second rule for tajweed that we will cover is the rule of Noon sakinah and tanween, which is classified into 4 categories according to the letter that comes after them.
What are the 4 rules of Noon sakinah and tanween?
- Izhaar halqi.
- Ikhfaa Haqiqi.
What is the definition of Izhaar halqi?
Linguistic definition: being clear or obvious.
Applied definition: Pronouncing every letter from its articulation point without a
ghunnah on the clear letter.
What are the letters of Izhaar Halqi?
Izhaar halqi has six letters which are: ( ء- ه – ع – ح – غ -خ ). Tajweed scholars summed the letters of Izhaar in the initial letters of each word of the following phrase:
( أخي هاك علمًا حازه غير خاسر )
In order to apply the Izhaar rule correctly, you should clearly pronounce the Noon sakinah or tanween without ghunnah in case they are followed by any of the six letters of Izhaar.
Practical examples of Izhaar Halqi:
Here are some examples of the tajweed rule of the Izhaar halqi for you to practice, notice the presence of Noon sakinah or tanween with Izhaar letters following them.
- مَنْ آمَنَ.
- مِنْ هَادٍ.
- جُرُفٍ هَارٍ.
What is the definition of Idgham?
Linguistic definition: insertion, or merging.
Applied definition: it is the meeting of a non-vowel letter with a vowel letter, so
that the two letters become one emphasized letter similar to the second.
What are the Idgham letters?
Idgham has six letters which are (ي، ر، م، ل، و، ن), these letters make the word (يرملون).
What are the types of Idgham?
According to the letter following the Noon sakinah or tanween, there are two types of Idgham that can be summarized as follows:
- Idgham with ghunnah:
It means merging the sound of Noon sakinah or tanween with the letter following them with reservation of ghunnah sound, This is usually referred to as incomplete Idgham and it applies to the four letters of Idgham summed in the word ( ينمو ) or (ي- ن – م – و ).
- من يعمل ، قومٍ يؤمنون
- من نعمة ، يومئذٍ ناعمة
- من مال ، آياتٍ مبينات
- من وليٍ ولا نصير
There are 4 cases in the Quran where we do not follow the tajweed rule of Idgham without ghunnah despite the presence of Noon sakinah followed by the letters (ي ، و ).This is due to their presence within a single word. Tajweed scholars call this case “absolute Izhaar”.
The four examples of absolute Izhaar are:
- دنيا، بنيان.
- قنوان، صنوان.
- Idgham without ghunnah:
It means complete merging of Noon sakinah or tanween with the Idgham letter following them devoid of any ghunnah sound. It is referred to as “ complete Idgham”.
The letters of Idgham without ghunnah are( ل، ر ).
- من لبن ، سائغاً للشاربين.
- من ربهم ، غفورٌ رحيم .
What is the definition of Iqlab?
Linguistic definition: to change or convert.
Applied definition: In the rules of tajweed Iqlab means the conversion of Noon saakinah or the tanween into a Meem,
when followed by the letter ba’ (ب) with the preservation of the ghunnah, and hiding of the Meem.
What are the Iqlab letters?
Iqlab has only one letter which is the ba’ (ب). If the letter baa’ occurs after Noon sakinah in the same word, or between two words, it should be changed into a hidden Meem, with ghunnah preservation.
The Noon saakinah is converted into a Meem in pronunciation, but not in the written word. In this case, you may note that a small Meem is written over or under the Noon or instead of one of the dhammas or lines of tanween.
Examples of Iqlab:
- قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ
- كَلَّا لَيُنْبَذَنَّ فِي الْحُطَمَةِ
- يُنْبِتُ لَكُمْ
- وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُمْ مِنَ الأنْبَاءِ
What is the definition of Ikhfaa Haqiqi?
Linguistic definition: concealment or hiding.
Applied definition: The pronunciation of Noon sakinah or tanween somewhere between Izhaar and Idgham, with a ghunnah remaining on the first letter, and stripped of any shaddah.
What are the letters of Ikhfaa Haqiqi?
Its letters are fifteen in number; which are the first letters of each of the following words:
صِفْ ذَا ثَنَا كَمْ جَادَ شَخْصٌ قَدْ سَمَا
دُم طَيِّبًا زِدْ فِي تُقًى ضَعْ ظَالِمًا
If any of these letters follows the Noon saakinah in the same word, or follows the tanween at the beginning of the next word, then the Noon sound must be hidden. We call this ikhfaa Haqiqi.
Practical examples of Ikhfaa Haqiqi:
- أنْصَار / عنْ صلاتهم
- أَنْذِر قومك / مَنْ ذَا الذي
- أَنْذِر قومك / مَنْ ذَا الذي
- الإِنْسان / ولئنْ سَألتهم
- زَنْجَبيلاَ / إنْ جَاءَكم
Tajweed Rules of Meem Sakinah
What is the definition of Meem sakinah?
It is a Meem devoid of any harakah (vowel), and has a fixed sukoon when continuing reading and when stopping. Meem sakinah can be in the middle or at the end of a word.
Tajweed rules of Meem sakinah include:
- Izhaar Shafawi.
- Ikhfaa Shafawi.
- Minor merging/ Idgham of identical letters.
- Izhar Shafawi ( الإظهار الشفوي ):
Definition of Izhaar Shafawi:
Its linguistic definition: clear, or obvious.
Its applied definition: pronunciation of each letter from its articulation point without any ghunnah on the clear letter. This can be in a single word, or between two words.
Letters of Izhaar Shafawi:
Its letters: 26 letters, i.e, the remaining Arabic letters after exclusion of ikhfaa and Idgham letters.
Examples of Izhaar Shafawi:
- فَوۡقَكُمۡ سَبۡعٗا
- أَلَمۡ نَجۡعَلِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ مِهَٰدٗا
- عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا الضَّالِّينَ
- عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ
- Ikhfaa Shafawi: (الإخفاء الشفوي )
Definition of Ikhfaa Shafawi:
Its linguistic definition: hiding or concealment.
Its applied definition: The pronunciation of Meem sakinah, stripped of any ‘”shaddah” with preservation of ghunnah. It is characterized by being between clear Izhaar and merged Idgham.
Letters of Ikhfaa Shafawi:
It has one letter which is the baa’ (ب)
If a Meem sakinah is followed immediately by a baa’, and this only occurs between
two words, then we hide the Meem and pronounce it accompanied by ghunnah. This is called “ikhfaa Shafawi”. We call it ikhfaa because the Meem is hidden. It is called “Shafawi” because the Meem is articulated from the two lips.
Examples of Ikhfaa Shafawi:
- الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُم بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ
- وَلَقَدْ أَنذَرَهُم بَطْشَتَنَا فَتَمَارَوْا بِالنُّذُرِ
- Minor Idgham of identical letters: (إدغام المتماثلين الصغير)
Definition of minor Idgham:
Its linguistic definition: Insertion, or merging.
Its applied definition: The meeting of Meem sakinah with a voweled Meem in the same word, or between two words. In this case we are required to merge the Meem sakinah into the voweled Meem, which then acquires a shaddah.
It is called minor because the Meem sakinah is inserted into the Meem with a vowel. It is called identical because the letter merged and the letter being merged to share the same articulation points and characteristics, which is the Meem.
Letters of minor Idgham:
Small Idgham has only one letter which is the Meem (م).
Examples of minor Idgham:
- إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ
- قَدْ جَاءتْكُـم مَّـوْعِظَةٌ
- وَكَمْ مِنْ مَلَكٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ
- وَأَسْقَيْنَاكُمْ مَاءً فُرَاتًا
Rules of Noon and Meem with Shaddah
What is Noon and Meem mushadada?
It is a Meem (م) or Noon (ن) that has a shaddah (ْ) on it. It is originally composed of two Meems or two Noons – one is sakin and the other has a harakah (voweled).
When these two Meems or Noons meet we merge the sakin letter and harakah letter to become one letter with a shaddah.
What is the tajweed rule for Noon and Meem with shaddah?
Meem and Noon with shaddah should be pronounced with a complete ghunnah sound which extends for two harakahs (2 finger counts duration).
Note that: Ghunnah is a fine sound that originates from the nasal passage.
Practical examples on Noon and Meem with shaddah:
- ومن نّعمره.
- من مّال.
Lengthening Rules (Madd)
What is the definition of Madd?
Linguistic definition: addition.
Applied definition: voice extension during pronunciation of one of the Madd letters.
What are the letters of Madd?
There are three Madd letters which are combined in the word “نوحيها”. The three letters are:
- Alif sakinah preceded by fatth (ا).
- Yaa’ sakinah preceded by kasr.(ي).
- Waw sakinah preceded by dhamm (و).
What are the types of Madd?
There are two main types of Madd. The tajweed rules for Madd can be summarized as follows:
First: Natural lengthening (primary Madd – Madd asli):
The letter does not exist without the pronunciation of this type of Madd. Its duration is two harakahs (two finger counts).
Natural Madd includes:
- Compensate Madd (مد العوض).
- Substitute Madd (مد البدل).
- Minor connecting Madd (مد الصلة الصغرى).
Second: Secondary Madd:
It is extension of natural made due to the presence of a hamza (ء) or sukoon (silent letter).
- Madd due to hamza, which includes:
- Major connecting Madd (مد الصلة الكبرى).
- Permissible separate Madd (المد الجائز المنفصل).
- Obligatory connecting Madd (المد الواجب المتصل).
- Madd due to sukoon, which includes:
- Heavy required Lettered Madd (المد اللازم الحرفي المثقل).
- Light required lettered Madd (المد اللازم الحرفي المخفف).
- Heavy required word Madd (المد اللازم الكلمي المثقل).
- Light required word Madd (المد اللازم الكلمي المخفف).
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